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Cooperation & Communication
Cooperation and communication
In terms of cooperation and communication, the theories relied on were:
The theory of cooperation and competition (Deutsch)
Deutsch assumes that interpersonal conflicts (understood as perceiving differences as irreconcilable) are inevitable, similarly assumed in the assumption of tools. Deutsch defined the goals of two people (groups) as goals with positive or negative dependence (positive dependence: two parties pursue a similar goal by different methods, or negative dependence: two parties pursue completely different results, then we speak of conflict of interest), in addition, people take actions related to the achievement of goals as effective actions (bring us closer to the goal) or ineffective actions (ineffective, move us away from the goal).
Conflicts in a team, according to Deutsch’s concept, arise as a result of the relationship between the mechanisms of cooperation and rivalry, according to which in a group there are mechanisms of cooperation and rivalry, which result from three processes:
- substitutability – allowing the realization of different goals and values with the admission of the perspective of others
- attitude – predisposition to positively or negatively value situations, aspirations, actions, persons (which leads to cooperation or rivalry)
- ability to induce (influence/persuasion) – positive ability to influence refers to the acceptance of the influence of others on the actions of the individual, negative ability to influence involves negative valuing – when the ability to influence is rejected.
The theory of nonviolent agreement (Rosenberg)
A concept that refers to assertive, non-performance-oriented communication related to personal competence (expressing one’s own emotions, observations, needs and expectations) with respect for the other person’s perspective. With the help of nonviolent communication, we communicate in such a way that we do not hurt or intimidate other people and, when talking to them, listen to what they want to tell us.
A good nonviolent communication is one in which, despite disagreements with the interlocutor, we do not react with anger or aggression, but calmly leave space for the other person and wait for someone to express their views. NVC-compliant communications are based on clearly expressing fact-based observations (one’s own perspective), emotions and consequences accompanying the resulting observations or situation, communicating about one’s own needs, and being able to express expectations and requests.
Both perspectives on communication at work make it possible to understand communications as aspects related to personal competence as well as those related to team functioning (supporting cooperation or competition).
The tool includes: behavioral indicators related to theories in the field of emotional and social intelligence (Goleman), references to multiple intelligences (Gardner) and aspects of cognitive functioning (memory, attention, perceptiveness)More
The tool includes behavioral indicators relating to theories in the following fields:
- Emotional and Social Intelligence (Goleman) as a factor influencing good adaptation to the environment, taking into account personal and social competencies (self-awareness, self-regulation, acceptance, empathy, social intelligence, after: Matczak). Emotional and social intelligence found their place in the tool because of the broad impact of IE on interpersonal and team functioning and the predictors of private and professional success flowing from a high rate of emotional intelligence (Goleman research, Harvard graduates), moreover, it is one of the competencies of the future (2030) according to the World Economic Forum
- References to multiple intelligences (Gardner)
The tool adopted a definition of intelligence understood as an adaptive resource, “the ability to solve problems or to create products valued in a particular cultural environment or community” (1993) (Zimbardo). Multiple intelligences was one of the theoretical inspirations related to adaptation, the broad abilities that can be used in the workplace (logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial/visual, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal/social, natural, intrapersonal)
- Aspects of cognitive functioning (memory, attention, perceptiveness – selected tests)
Creative thinking expresses itself in operations such as seeking new and unusual solutions, generating new ideas (e.g., for quality improvement and development), unusual applications of existing elements or spontaneous conjecture (Torrance).More
Creative thinking expresses itself on operations such as searching for new, unusual solutions, generating new ideas (e.g., for quality improvement and development), unusual applications of existing elements or spontaneous conjecture (Torrance).
Also important in understanding creativity was Teresa Amabile’s theory of creativity components, according to which creativity occurs when the following criteria are met:
- something new is created, something that did not work before (idea, product, solution),
- it is useful/fit for specific purposes,
- it is created by one person or a small group of people working together.
The theory of creativity components developed by Amabile assumes that the level of effectiveness of creation is not always at the same level. There are factors that influence whether conditions will be favorable to creativity or the opposite. These are:
- skills, knowledge, experience in a particular field/topic of activity,
- intrinsic desire to act, motivation,
- personality factors, cognitive abilities,
- external factors, environment.
Motivational indicators understood as a set of factors related to individual challenge to act and take on ambitious challenges (individually) with reference to the concepts of Karasek, Zuckerman and Schuler.More
Motivational indicators understood as a set of factors related to individual challenge to act and take on ambitious challenges (individually) with reference to the concepts of Karasek, Zuckerman and Schuler.
- Theory of sensation seeking (Zuckerman) – in terms of motivation: the need for stimulation, the search for new experiences, adventures
- Achievement motivation concept (Schuler) – self-confidence, ambition, self-control
- Job demand – Control model (Karasek)
- JD-C model
Temperament is a set of grouped personality factors that determine a person’s adaptation to the environment, his ability to assimilate experiences and learning process (H. Eysenck 1952, 1967, 1982).More
Temperament is a set of grouped personality factors that determine a person’s adaptation to the environment, his ability to assimilate experiences and learn (H. Eysenck 1952, 1967, 1982). The PEN model proves a biological predisposition to certain traits and behaviors. According to it, a person’s personality depends on the balance between “arousal” and “inhibition” of the autonomic nervous system to external and internal stimuli, i.e. a predisposition to different levels of response to stimuli (e.g. to stress, challenges or difficulties).
- Introversion → Extraversion (a person’s orientation to internal or external stimuli) And the second axis:
- Emotional Stability → Neuroticism (strength of response to stimuli and the length of time a response lasts in the body).
Temperamental types, dating back to antiquity from the Hippocrates-Galen concept, which are derived from these two axes, are as follows:
- Choleric – neurotic extrovert
- Sanguinarian – emotionally stable extrovert
- Melancholic – introvert neurotic
- Phlegmatic – emotionally stable introvert.
Eysenck defines temperament as a way of expressing and experiencing emotions, and therefore, depending on the type of response, one can refer to traits such as coping with stress, showing self-initiative, predisposition to work independently or in groups, patience, ease and readiness to establish relationships and manage conflicts. In terms of stress, the tool was based on Endler and Parker’s concept (stress coping styles).
The Big Five
Their research shows that levels of extraversion and neuroticism begin to decline around the age of 30, while agreeableness and conscientiousness become more dominant with age. Nevertheless, the authors of the concept consider each trait to be relatively constant and complementary (Campbell, Lindzey, Hall).
By definition, the Big Five model is universal, independent of gender, ethnicity or culture. It has been noted, for example, that countries where citizens are characterized by low levels of extraversion and high levels of conscientiousness are distinguished by high power distance. In contrast those, where extraversion and openness to experience predominate, are masculinist cultures.
The traits that make up the Big Five can affect many aspects related to both behavioral and emotional factors. Costa and McCrae in their research argue that extraversion and agreeableness are areas that determine interpersonal behavior, agreeableness and openness affect attitudes, while extraversion and neuroticism are part of emotion-related issues.
It is defined as a personality trait characterized by openness, assertiveness, activity, seeking new experiences and comfort with the need to be with other people.More about extraversion
The Big Five
It is defined as a personality trait characterized by openness, assertiveness, activity, seeking new experiences and comfort with the need to be with other people. Extraversion is contrasted with introversion, in which individuals prefer to stay and experience experiences (or feel more comfortable) alone. People who declare themselves to be extroverts may have a need to be in a group, to explore, and to seek out new experiences in which they can prove themselves socially by being with other people. The highly extroverted may feel uncomfortable staying for long periods of time (e.g., at work) without contact with other people.
Extraversion and introversion refer to the orientation of preferred functioning – in an external (interpersonal) or internal (intrapersonal) direction.
It may be that in some situations, people who consider themselves extroverts may describe themselves as “more” introverted, so tests can help determine a person’s preference for being extroverted or introverted, which affects the preference toward doing work collaboratively or individually, and aspects related to the need for social stimulation (the need to be in a group) or working individually.
→ Emotional stability
Neuroticism is defined as the tendency to experience heightened tension due to accompanying emotions and stress. Neuroticism is understood as experiencing negative affect prolonged over time or at elevated levels.More about neuroticism
The Big Five
Neuroticism → Emotional stability:
Defined as the tendency to experience heightened tension due to accompanying emotions and stress. Neuroticism is understood as experiencing negative affect prolonged over time or at elevated levels.
It can occur in varying degrees of severity. High neuroticism may be associated with more frequent experience of anxiety, fear, depressed mood, and more frequent and intense experience of stress, which may impede social functioning, but is not in any way exclusionary. The model uses the term and concept of emotional stability as a desirable trait in the job profile.
Emotional stability is understood as the ability to experience emotions at an acceptable (comfortable) level, the ability to change one’s perspective in a stressful situation, the ability to discharge emotions and stress in a socially acceptable way, experiencing (e.g. professional situations such as talking to a client or speaking in front of a group) challenges without excessive emotional strain.
It is defined as the ability to adjust and seek for compromises. It manifests itself, for example, through: kindness, altruism, modesty, submissiveness, tactfulness, flexibility.More about agreeableness
The Big Five
It is defined as the ability to adjust and seek compromises. It manifests itself, for example: kindness, altruism, modesty, docility, tactfulness, flexibility.
These individuals may have a positive outlook on human nature and communicate with others in a friendly manner. They are able to get along well with the need to cooperate with others. They are able to put the interests of others above their own responsibilities or needs.
People with high levels of agreeableness often strive for social harmony. For agreeable people, good relationships with others are very important. They may be eager to help and assume that people are honest and trustworthy. Agreeableness is a great advantage during the formation and formation of a team in a company. It is through it that harmony can be maintained on the employee level. It can be a handicap in those professional situations that will require difficult and objective decisions or assertiveness is required.
Conscientiousness is understood as self-discipline and a desire for organization and order. Conscientious people feel comfortable when they can follow a set plan. They meticulously plan their actions, which can involve persistence in pursuit of a goal.More about conscientiousness
The Big Five
Conscientiousness is understood as self-discipline and a desire for organization and order. Conscientious people feel comfortable when they can follow a set plan. They meticulously plan their activities, which may involve persistence in pursuit of a goal.
These individuals are characterized by responsibility, reliability, and conscientiousness. People with a high conscientiousness score can prove themselves in setting and achieving long-term goals. They can (or are willing to learn) to skillfully and effectively plan an entire plan of action to achieve their goals. They are perceived by others as responsible, meticulous and reliable.
Openness refers to six different aspects; imagination, aesthetics, feelings, action, and openness to ideas and values. People who are open to experience are eager to try new experiences, they are endowed with imagination, they have no problem dreaming and then carrying out step-by-step tasks to meet their goals, they show interest in learning, developing or meeting new people and gaining new experiences.More about openness to experience
The Big Five
Openness to experience
Openness refers to six different aspects; imagination, aesthetics, feelings, action, and openness to ideas and values. People who are open to experience are eager to try new experiences, are endowed with imagination, have no problem dreaming and then carrying out step-by-step tasks to meet their goals, and show interest in learning, developing or meeting new people and gaining new experiences.
The opposite of openness is rigidity, which blocks taking on challenges and curiosity about the world, associated with, for example, traveling, meeting people, learning new things.
Openness also refers to the inner world. Open-minded people want to learn about themselves, try to understand their emotions, what their causes and consequences are. Open-minded people are eager to acquire new knowledge, do not close themselves off to foreign values, and their views are not extremely conservative. Openness to aesthetics is related to the desire to create and interact with art and beauty.